TV 3.0 Project

The analog TV (that we conventionally call “TV 1.0”), which started in Brazil in 1950, was black and white with monophonic sound. 

Then, some backward-compatible improvements (that we conventionally call “TV 1.5”), such as color (in the 1970s), stereo sound, and closed caption (in the 1980s) were added to it. 

From 2007, the first generation of Digital Terrestrial Television (that we conventionally call “TV 2.0”) was introduced in Brazil, bringing high-definition video, surround sound, mobile reception, and interactivity. 

Since then, the technological landscape changed a lot. Based on this technological landscape, the SBTVD Forum recognized the necessity to evolve the SBTVD. It also acknowledged that changing the physical layer, the transport layer, and/or audiovisual coding would not be backward-compatible. Nevertheless, the transition to a new generation of Digital Terrestrial Television is a long process, based on the investments required for both broadcasters and consumers and the expected life span of TV transmitters and receivers. It was, therefore, deemed necessary to increase the life span of the existing Digital Terrestrial Television system as much as possible through a backward-compatible evolution (a project we called “TV 2.5”) and to start the development of the next generation Digital Terrestrial Television system (the project we called “TV 3.0”). 

The “TV 2.5” project comprised two aspects: broadcast-broadband integration and audiovisual quality. The first aspect involved the development of a new receiver profile for the middleware Ginga (receiver profile D, a.k.a. “DTV Play”), addressing use cases such as on-demand video, synchronized companion device, audiovisual enhancement over the Internet, and targeted content. The second aspect was addressed through the introduction of three new optional immersive audio codecs (MPEG-H Audio, E-AC-3 JOC, and AC-4) while retaining MPEG-4 AAC main audio for backward compatibility, and through the introduction of two new optional HDR video formats (SL-HDR1 dynamic metadata and HLG “preferred transfer characteristics” signaling) while keeping MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) / 8-bit / BT.709 / 1080i for backward compatibility. The revision of the SBTVD standards containing both “TV 2.5” aspects has already been published (available at https://forumsbtvd.org.br/legislacao-e-normas-tecnicas/normas-tecnicas-da-tv-digital/english/). 

For the “TV 3.0” project, the SBTVD Forum, after agreeing on its requirements (use cases and corresponding technical specifications), decided to release, in July 2020, a Call for Proposals for any interested organization to submit its proposed candidate technologies for any of the system components or sub-components. 

 

 

The deadline for Phase 1 responses regarding the Over-the-air Physical Layer, Transport Layer, Video Coding, Audio Coding, and Captions expired on 30 November 2020. The deadline for Phase 1 responses, regarding Application Coding expired on 26 March 2021.

 


 

The Call for Proposals received in total, considering its 6 system components (Over-the-air Physical Layer, Transport Layer, Video Coding, Audio Coding, Captions, and Application Coding), 36 responses from 21 different organizations worldwide. Some similar proposals were merged for the sake of Phase 2 testing and evaluation, resulting in the following 30 candidate technologies: 

 

Over-the-air Physical Layer

Candidate TechnologyProponents
Advanced ISDB-T
ATSC 3.0
5G Broadcast / EnTV

DTMB-A

 

Transport Layer

Candidate TechnologyProponents
ROUTE/DASH
SMT
ARIB MMT
ATSC 3.0 MMT

 

Video Coding

Sub-ComponentsCandidate TechnologyProponents
Video Base Layer CodecAVS3
Video Base Layer Codec
+ (multilayer) Video Enhancement Codec
VVC main / multilayer
HEVC / SHVC
Video Enhancement CodecLCEVC (multilayer)
Dynamic Resolution Encoding
(single layer)
HDR Dynamic Mapping CodecSL-HDR (1/2/3)
SMPTE ST 2094-10 (Dolby Vision)
SMPTE ST 2094-40 (HDR10+)
VR CodecV3C (V-PCC / MIV)
Emergency Warning System managerATSC 3.0 AEA

 

Audio Coding

Candidate TechnologyProponents
AC-4
AVSA
MPEG-H Audio

 

Captions

Candidate TechnologyProponents
IMSC1
ARIB-TTML
AVS Captions

 

Application Coding

Sub-ComponentsCandidate TechnologyApplication Coding
AllAdvanced ISDB-T
DTNEL Application Coding
ATSC 3.0
3D object-based immersive audio interactionMPEG-H Audio
VR / AR / XR supportGuaraná
voice interaction
gesture interaction
multimodal interaction
multi-user identification support
multi-user interaction support
sensory effects
NCL 4.0

 

 


The “TV 3.0 CfP Phase 2 / Testing and Evaluation” document provided further information and requirements for Phase 2, along with the test procedures for evaluating and comparing the proposals of candidate technologies and instructions on providing Phase 2 responses.

 

Phase 2 tests were carried out from 05 July 2021 to 03 December 2021. They were funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Communications through the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPqConselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), involving about 70 researchers from 7 different Brazilian Universities. 

COM (1)
CNPq (1)
Physical Layer – Laboratory Tests
Physical Layer – Laboratory Tests
Mackenzie-grande (1)

Mackenzie Presbyterian University
(Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie)

São Paulo / SP

Coordination:

Prof: Cristiano Akamine

Physical Layer – Field Tests
Physical Layer – Field Tests
UFF-GRANDE (1)

Fluminense Federal University
(UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense)

Rio de Janeiro / RJ

Coordination:

Prof. Natalia Fernandes

Transport Layer
Transport Layer
Mackenzie-grande (1)

Mackenzie Presbyterian University
(Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie)

São Paulo / SP

Coordination:

Prof. Gustavo Valeira

Video Coding
Video Coding
UNB (1)

University of Brasilia
(UnB, Universidade de Brasília)

Brasília / DF

Coordination:

Prof. Mylène Farias

Audio Coding
Audio Coding
USP

University of São Paulo
(USP, Universidade de São Paulo)

São Paulo / SP

Coordination:

Prof. Regis Faria

Coordination:

Prof. Almir Almas

Captions
Captions
UFPB (1)

Federal University of Paraiba
(UFPB, Universidade Federal da Paraíba)

João Pessoa / PB

Coordination:

Prof. Guido Lemos

Application Coding
Application Coding
UFJF (1)

Federal University of Juiz de Fora
(UFJF, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora)

PUC-RIO (1)

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
(PUC-RIO, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro)

Juiz de Fora / MG
Rio de Janeiro / RJ

Coordination:

Prof: Marcelo Moreno

The funding made available by the Brazilian Ministry of Communications was destined for the payment of scholarships to the researchers involved. The equipment used in the tests was provided by the candidate technologies’ proponents, the participating Universities, and SBTVD Forum members. The transmitting antenna systems currently used in the Physical Layer field tests were provided by Ideal Antenas and RFS. Teletronix provided UHF driver amplifiers for use in the Physical Layer tests. The rasterizer used in the Video Coding tests was provided by Phabrix.

The Phase 2 over-the-air physical layer field test required the use of MIMO indoor antennas. The physical layer candidate technologies’ proponents were requested to provide antennas for the test, but the SBTVD Forum also used MIMO indoor antennas of other providers, as reference. The inclusion of additional antennas in the test was important to verify the reception performance using antennas with characteristics closer to what would be obtained in the end-user consumer electronics products. This information also assists the determination of the minimum required field strength for indoor reception of the candidate technologies.

For this reason, the SBTVD Forum also released, in December 2020, a Call for Prototypes of MIMO indoor antennas, for which commercial product implementations are still practically non-existent, as this innovative new technology has not yet begun to be used in Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) transmission, except in research and development activities.

Due to the use of MIMO, the introduction of TV 3.0 will require the introduction of a new antenna at each DTT reception point, creating a great potential market for the new reception antennas.

 

The Call for Prototypes of MIMO indoor antennas received 4 prototype models to be used in the field tests (alongside the antennas provided by the physical layer candidate technologies’ proponents) from the following organizations:

The reports of Phase 2 Testing and Evaluation are available in the links below:

The reports of Phase 2 Testing and Evaluation are available in the links below:

Considering the results of the TV 3.0 Project Phase 2 testing and evaluation, as well as market and intellectual property aspects of the candidate technologies, the SBTVD Forum forwarded its recommendations on the selection of candidate technologies to the Brazilian Ministry of Communications. These recommendations have obtained the agreement of the Brazilian Ministry of Communications for disclosure by the SBTVD Forum. The following decisions were adopted for the continuation of the TV 3.0 Project:

Over-the-air Physical Layer 

– To perform additional tests. Condition for participation: to provide equipment with support for reuse-1, MIMO, and channel-bonding. Only the two best lab results go on to field tests. The technology would only be selected at the end of the second round of testing if the bitrate in the reuse-1 condition is sufficient; otherwise, the reuse-1 condition will need to be revised. 

Transport Layer 

– To adopt the ROUTE/DASH technology as the basis of the TV 3.0 transport layer and adapt/extend it to support all the project requirements and the technologies to be adopted in the other layers. 

– To maintain optional support for HLS streaming (as currently available in the TV 2.5 specification) for distribution of alternative content over the Internet. 

Video Base Layer 

– To adopt VVC for the main video (both over-the-air and over the Internet) and perform subjective video quality assessments to determine the bitrate needed for real-time encoding at different resolutions (considering base layer only and in combination with the enhancement layer). 

– To evaluate the most suitable video coding for transmitting a second video with a sign language interpreter.  

– To maintain support for H.264 and H.265 video (as currently available in the TV 2.5 specification) for distribution of alternative content over the Internet. 

Video Enhancement 

– To adopt a combination of Dynamic Resolution Encoding and LCEVC. 

HDR 

– To adopt HDR10 as the base (format already supported on all HDR TVs), with optional support for Dolby Vision, HDR10+ and SL-HDR2 dynamic metadata (both over-the-air and over the Internet).  

– To maintain optional support for HLG and SL-HDR1 (as currently available in the TV 2.5 specification) for the distribution of alternative content over the Internet. 

VR Codec 

– To adopt V3C for inclusion in TV 3.0 standards (support will not be mandatory in all receivers; focus on content distribution over the Internet and consumption on smartphones and HMDs). 

Emergency Warning System 

– To adopt ATSC 3.0 Advanced Emergency Alert. 

Audio Coding 

– To adopt MPEG-H Audio for over-the-air and Internet distribution. 

– To maintain the other audio formats currently supported in TV 2.5 for distribution of alternative content over the Internet (including optional AC-4 support). 

Captions 

– To adopt IMSC1 for over-the-air and Internet distribution. 

– To maintain optional support for WebVTT (as currently available in the TV 2.5 specification) for distribution of alternative content over the Internet. 

Application Coding 

– To adapt and extend DTV Play, including the satisfactorily tested proposals (MPEG-H Audio, Guaraná, and NCL 4.0) and considering including parts of the Advanced ISDB-T, DTNEL Application Coding, and ATSC 3.0 proposals (depending on the results of their prototyping). 

– To fill the gaps in requirements that were not satisfactorily fulfilled by the received proposals, when necessary. 

Phase 3 is being planned. It is expected to last about two years (2022-2023), contemplating, among other activities, complementary tests for selection of the physical layer technology, development of the necessary adaptations and extensions to the transport layer specification, subjective assessment of the video coding quality (determination of the necessary bitrate), development of adaptations and extensions to DTV Play for TV 3.0 Application Coding, elaboration of ABNT technical standards for TV 3.0, development of interoperability tests, demonstrations, etc. The TV 3.0 is expected to launch in 2024. More news to come soon…